The finite element method (FEM) has been used in human facial modeling both in clinical and engineering fields for decades. Applications of human head modeling include the interaction of personal protective equipment with the human head and modeling head impact. In human head modeling, it is critical to have a high fidelity model including accurate thicknesses of each layer and accurate material properties. Various experiments have been performed but do not report consistent results; therefore, it is difficult to find reliable parameter values to create an effective model of the human head. This paper attempts to review and summarize the state of the art of human facial studies including experimental measurements of different layer thicknesses and the mechanical properties of these layers.

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