Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are limited to resources including computing power, storage capacity, and especially energy supply. Thus, energy consumption of sensor nodes has become a dominant performance index for a WSN. In addition, data transmission between sensor nodes is a main energy consumer of WSNs. This paper presents a method called immune genetic algorithm based multiple-mobile-agent itinerary planning (IGA-M2IP) that addresses issues of energy consumption in large-scale WSNs. The IGA-M2IP preserves a GA’s advantages, and further improves a GA’s efficiency by restraining possible degenerative phenomena during the evolutionary process.

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