Projection-based algorithms are arising as a powerful tool for continuum topology optimization. They use independent design variables that are projected onto element space to create structure topology. The projection functions are designed so that geometric properties, such as the minimum length scale of features, are naturally achieved. They therefore offer an efficient means for imposing geometry-related design specifications and/or manufacturing constraints. This paper presents recent advances in projection-based algorithms, including topology optimization under manufacturing constraints related to milling and casting processes. The new advancements leverage the logic of recently proposed algorithms for Heaviside projection, including eliminating continuation methods on projection parameters and potential for using multiple design variables to achieve active projection of each phase used in design. The primary advantages of such an approach are that manufacturing restrictions are achieved naturally, without need for additional constraints, and that sensitivity calculations are efficient and straightforward. The primary drawback of the approach is that the so-called neighborhood maps require storage for efficient processing when using unstructured meshing.

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