The objective of work presented in this paper is to increase the center-of-mass stability of human walking and running in musculo-skeletal simulation. The approach taken is to approximate the whole-body dynamics of the low-dimensional Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum (SLIP) model of locomotion in the OpenSim environment using existing OpenSim tools. To more directly relate low-dimensional dynamic models to human simulation, an existing OpenSim human model is first modified to more closely represent bilateral above-knee amputee locomotion with passive prostheses. To increase stability further beyond the energy-conserving SLIP model, an OpenSim model based upon the Clock-Torqued Spring-Loaded-Inverted-Pendulum (CT-SLIP) model of locomotion is also created. The result of this work is that a multi-body musculo-skeletal simulation in Open-Sim can approximate the whole-body sagittal-plane dynamics of the passive SLIP model. By adding a plugin controller to the OpenSim environment, the Clock-Torqued-SLIP dynamics can be approximated in OpenSim. To change between walking and running, only one parameter representing the preferred period of a stride is changed. The result is a robustly stable simulation of the center-of-mass locomotion for both walking and running that could serve as a first step toward increasingly anatomically accurate and robustly stable musculo-skeletal simulations.

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