Wind farm design deals with the optimal placement of turbines in a wind farm. Past studies have focused on energy-maximization, cost-minimization or revenue-maximization objectives. As land is more extensively exploited for onshore wind farms, wind farms are more likely to be in close proximity with human dwellings. Therefore governments, developers, and landowners have to be aware of wind farms’ environmental impacts. After considering land constraints due to environmental features, noise generation remains the main environmental/health concern for wind farm design. Therefore, noise generation is sometimes included in optimization models as a constraint. Here we present continuous-location models for layout optimization that take noise and energy as objective functions, in order to fully characterize the design and performance spaces of the optimal wind farm layout problem. Based on Jensen’s wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculations, we used single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (NSGA-II) to solve the optimization problem. Preliminary results from the bi-objective optimization model illustrate the trade-off between energy generation and noise production by identifying several key parts of Pareto frontiers. In addition, comparison of single-objective noise and energy optimization models show that the turbine layouts and the inter-turbine distance distributions are different when considering these objectives individually. The relevance of these results for wind farm layout designers is explored.

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