As the topic of sustainability continues to gain momentum, companies are seeking ways to integrate environmental solutions into their product development process. Decisions made throughout the product development process affect the sustainability of the product from raw material extraction, to production process impacts, to end of life disposal. One such impact is the generation of waste by-products. By utilizing waste as raw materials, companies can continue to cycle technical and biological nutrients thus minimizing the scatter of waste to the natural environment. The focus of this research is to explore the enablers and barriers to utilizing waste streams as raw materials. Using a qualitative approach, nine different organizations from four companies crossing over multiple industries are studied. Key characteristics of production waste that enable successful by-product exchanges are identified, as well as the role the product development process needs to play in creating value from exchanges.

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