Control strategies for robotic manipulators in underwater applications are still immature compared with the strategies of the manipulators on land. Part of the reason is that there is no precise force/torque information, which is essential to the close-loop control. Unlike the sensor applied on the ground, the sensors for underwater applications have to endure the high-pressure, low-temperature and corrosive environment. Therefore, aimed at obtaining the accurate interaction force/torque between underwater robot manipulators and objects, a novel four-dimensional fingertip force sensor is presented based on e-type membrane for underwater robot manipulators. A seal technique is described. Experimental results demonstrate the design could detect force/torque with good linearity, high sensitivity and weak couplings.

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