To include interactions with human users in simulations of the use of products, the most common approach is to couple human subjects to the behavioral product model in the simulation loop using interfaces based on VR and haptics. Replacing human subjects by human models with simulation capabilities could offer a cost-saving alternative. Currently available human models have not yet been deployed this way. This paper explores the possibilities to achieve mutual closed-loop coupling between human models and artifact models for enabling fully software-based interaction simulations. We have not only investigated human control in simulations, but also solutions to include embedded control in artifacts. The paper critically reviews existing (partial) solutions to simulate or execute control behaviors, and to close the control loops we identified in human-artifact interaction simulation. We concluded that closed-loop control of interaction simulations can be achieved by selectively combining existing partial solutions. Inclusion of decision-making appears to be the biggest challenge. Promising solutions are (i) cognitive simulation and (ii) execution of conjectured interactions specified as logical instructions, typically in the form of scenarios. Based on scenarios, which we expect to be more intuitive for designers, a new approach is now being developed.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.