This paper is devoted to the characterization of the surface defects using a recently developed AFM technique named as frequency and force modulation AFM (FFM-AFM). The simulated system includes a recently developed gold coated AFM probe which interacts with a sample including single-atom vacancy and impurities. In order to examine the behavior of the above system including different transition metals, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with Sutton-Chen (SC) interatomic potential is used. Along this line, an imaging simulation of the probe and sample is performed, and the effects of the horizontal scan speed, the effective frequency set-point, the cantilever stiffness, the tip-sample rest position and the cantilever quality factor on the resulting images are investigated. Using a proposed optimum controlling scheme for the excitation force amplitude, the cantilever horizontal speed can be maximized.

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