Recognizing the need for an improved cellular material manufacturing process, the authors follow a systematic design method (posed by Pahl and Beitz) to address the inherent limitations imposed on designer freedom by existing manufacturing techniques. After identifying unique requirements of a cellular material manufacturing process, several solution principles are systematically generated following functional decomposition, working principle ideation, the formulation of working structures (via morphological matrices), and a preliminary selection exercise. Following preliminary embodiment, a principal solution is identified through the formulation and solution of a selection Decision Support Problem. As a result of this design effort, a novel layered manufacturing process capable of realizing metallic cellular materials (specifically, the three-dimensional printing of metal oxide parts followed by a thermal-chemical conversion postprocess) is realized. Another result of this design process is the insight gained from the systematic requirements-driven (or “application-pull”) design of a layered manufacturing process.

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