We introduce a dual input Parallel Force/Velocity Actuation (PFVA) concept in this paper to enable variable response manipulation. The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical model for power flow in PFVA systems. We studied the functional dependence of external and internal power flow phenomena on two dimensionless parameters we define in this paper, namely Relative Scale Factor (ρ) and Velocity Mixing Ratio (λ). We observed that overall mechanical efficiency of the PFVA decreases approximately 16% from the basic efficiency when the RSF was increased 5x and the VMR was increased 10x. For a specified load torque of −100 Nm at the output of a positive-ratio PFVA and a fixed VA angular velocity of 150 RPM, the Futile Power Ratio (FPR) was observed to increase by approximately 40% when the RSF was increased by 5x and the FA velocity was increased from 0–80 RPM. Based on our analytical development we suggest some design and operational guidelines for PFVA based systems.

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