A novel and very simple chloroplastmimic photovoltaic scheme, in which water is photolyzed by a new photocatalyst fabricated by depositing a thin film of TiO2 on an array of carbon nanotubes (CNT), has been made. Multiple reflections within the photocatalyst extend the optical response from the ultraviolet range to the full visible range. Hydrogen ions with various concentrations are separated by an artificial thylakoid membrane, resulting in a transmembrane chemiosmotic potential, generating ion-diffusion-induced electricity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed simple chloroplastmimic photovoltaics can produce a photocurrent directly from visible light.

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