A new model for a grand piano action is proposed in this paper. The multibody dynamic model treats each of the five main action components (key, whippen, jack, repetition lever, and hammer) as a rigid body, and incorporates a contact model to determine the normal and friction forces at 13 locations between each of the contacting bodies. All parameters in the model are directly measured from experiments on individual action components, allowing the model to be used as a prototyping tool for actions that have not yet been designed or built. The behaviour of the model was compared to the behaviour of an experimental grand piano action and found to be very accurate for high force blows, and reasonably accurate for low force blows.

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