This study, investigated the accuracy, practicality, and sensitivity of several different methods of calculating muscle forces during functional activities in humans. The upper extremity dynamic system was chosen, where the movement flexion / extension elbow joint was studied. The redundant mechanisms were solved using optimization criteria with and without models of individual muscles according to their active and passive properties. Exploration of the control problem for the redundant elbow system was performed using muscle models with and without tendon and activation dynamics. Comparisons with known movements solved by inverse dynamics approach and optimization techniques, provided similar results across to all optimization criteria. Moreover, if muscle models with active and passive properties are included in these analyses, it is relatively easy to calculate muscle forces of both agonists and antagonists. These approaches may be used to provide input data for dynamic FEM stress analysis of bones and bone-implant systems.

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