Medical robots in neurosurgery are currently used to accurately position a microscope in consonance with MRI images to allow positional awareness relative to important features of surgical focus. Currently, these robots must be “hand” adjusted by the surgeon, unlike the mouth-operated, counterbalanced linkages that are adjusted using a mouth interface. A human interface to the robot will allow smooth operation as well as new programmable motions not obtainable with the non-actuated microscope stands. A robotically guided microscope will be able to move in a spherical motion allowing for quicker and easier focus about a point of interest. Future work in robotic augmentation must certainly allow tools to be manipulated. As a first step, we mount a biopsy holder on a parallel robot and discuss the compliance issues of the entire system.

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