This paper presents the use of Advanced Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (AFMEA) as a methodology to analyze manufacturing process reliability. The proposed method applies to early process design and seeks to improve product quality, process efficiency, and time to market. The method uses behavior modeling to relate process functions, performance state variables, and physical entities. The model can be used to define process failures explicitly and provides a framework for assessing causes and effects. An example of a precision turning operation illustrates how AFMEA applies to the analysis of manufacturing processes. A pilot analysis of an ultrasonic inspection process revealed that AFMEA is comprehensive and adaptable to other processes. Ongoing work for AFMEA is developing deployment strategies for minimal time burden and links to embedded error proofing.