Primary considerations for hydraulic cylinder and piston design include loading, geometry and material properties. However, variations in as-manufactured dimensions, as-processed material properties, and actual pressure histories propagate through the piston-seal-cylinder system often resulting in intolerable behaviors.

Variations are evaluated using design variation simulation, namely the Monte Carlo simulation technique and available statistical information, to evaluate a high-pressure piston-seal-cylinder system for servo-hydraulic fatigue testing experiments.

The numerical results indicate that the fatigue life as measured by number of cycles to failure, has a significant 140.8% coefficient of variation and 57.2% reliability for nominal design values. When the coefficients of variation of the input variables are maintained below 1%, the fatigue life coefficient of variation is approximately 13.3% and the reliability is 99.06%.

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