This study of the behavior of non-linear stiffness systems with variable preload displacements and constant amplitude decay ratios showed that the energy loss per cycle is dependent on these preload displacements. By introducing a non-linear damping force, which is a function of both displacement and velocity, the associated work per cycle can be made approximately the same function of the preload displacement as is the case for the energy loss. In this manner, it becomes possible to make the resulting damping coefficient essentially independent of the preload displacement. This new damping model was incorporated into the mathematical description of an over-running sprag clutch. Confirming experimentation showed very good agreement with computed results.

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