This paper concerns the transverse vibrations and stabilities of an elastic beam simultaneously subjected to a periodic axial load, a distributed transverse load, and time-dependent displacement excitations at both ends. The equation of motion derived from Bernoulli-Euler beam theory is a fourth-order partial differential equation with periodic coefficients. To obtain approximate solutions, the method of assumed-modes is used. The unknown time-dependent function in the assumed-modes method is determined by a generalized inhomogeneous Hill’s equation. The instability regions possessed by this generalized Hill’s equation are obtained by both the perturbation technique up to the second order and the harmonic balance method. The dynamic response and the corresponding spectrum of the transversely oscillating elastic beam are calculated by the weighted-residual method.