Using forward and inverse dynamic analysis, the dynamic simulation of a backhoe has been compared with experiments. In the experiment, recorded were the configuration and force histories; that is, velocity and position, and force output from the hydraulic cylinder-all were measured in the time domain. When the experimental force history is used as driving force in the simulation, forward dynamic analysis produces a corresponding motion history. And when the experimental motion history is used as if a prescribed trajectory, inverse dynamic analysis generates a corresponding force history. Therefore, these two sets of motion and force histories — one set from experiment, and the other from the simulation that is driven forward and backward with the experimental data — are compared in the time domain. The comparisons are discussed in regard to the effects of variations in initial conditions, friction, and viscous damping.

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