A symbolic algorithm exploiting natural factors of generalized inertia matrices and iterative refinement to compute the dynamics of open kinematic-loop systems was developed in Part I of this paper. The general equations of motion for open and closed loop systems were derived in an earlier paper (Wehage, 1988) and it was shown that algorithms for open loop dynamics could be used to solve closed loop problems by cutting the secondary joints. In this paper it is shown that secondary joint forces can be obtained either from a dynamic force balance or from constraint surface deformations. Closed kinematic loops create additional numerical problems and require substantially more computational overhead. Therefore the iterative refinement algorithm developed in Part I is extended to address some of these problems. Exploitation of iterative refinement and computer architecture can substantially improve overall algorithm performance.

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