Abstract

In the p-version of the finite element method, convergence is achieved by increasing the polynomial order of the elements. This paper discusses high-order three-dimensional carved beam and shell elements which have been implemented in a general purpose p-version linear finite element code. The displacement and rotation fields are represented by polynomials up to ninth order. Beam axes are three-dimensional space curves, and shell midsurfaces are general doubly-curved surfaces. Results for linear static and modal analyses are presented. In particular, it is demonstrated that a relatively small number of elements provide highly accurate results for typical benchmark problems. The elements perform robustly, with no locking or spurious deformation modes.

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