Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium.

Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/a (2.25 percent per year) in proportion to 2.25%/a exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modeled as being proportional to 50-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C.

Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWa. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first electrolysis stage, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. D2O enrichment from water electrolysis is augmented by using the resulting Hydrogen and Oxygen in fuel cells. Condensate from hydrogen consumption returns to the appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-stage feed.

Previously, recycling only hydrogen from combustion back to upper electrolysis stages allowed a 5%/a atomic power expansion. Using fuel-cells to augment upper-stage electrolysis enrichment increases atomic power expansion from 5%/a to 6%/a. Implementation of this process should start by 2020 to minimize peak atmospheric CO2 concentration to 850 ppm-C.

Atomic power expansion is 6%/a, giving 45000 GW by 2100. World primary energy increases at the historic rate of 2.25%/a, exceeding 4000 EJ-thermal/a by 2100. J-electric ∼ 3J-thermal. CO2 maximum is roughly 850 ppm-C around year 2100. CO2 declines back below 350 ppm-C by 2250 if the 50-year-delay seawater sink remains effective. The 15-year global temperature rise hiatus is apparently caused by convective heat transfer into seawater. Presumably convective CO2 transfer into seawater also occurs by the same mechanism. Each decade rapid atomic power expansion is delayed results in a 100 ppm increase in maximum atmospheric CO2 concentration. 50 TW dispatchable CSP (concentrated solar power), including 2 TWa storage, costs 1600 trillion USD and covers two Australias.

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