Accurate burnup calculation in pebble bed reactor cores is today necessary but challenging. The continuous advancement in computing capabilities make the use of Monte Carlo transport codes possible to efficiently study individual pebbles depletion without making strong assumptions. The purpose is to eliminate unnecessary typical assumptions made in existing codes, while being flexible and suitable for commonly available computing machines.
Among the available codes, Serpent 2 provides extremely useful tools to make pebble beds modeling and simulation efficient. The explicit stochastic geometry definition handles irregular pebble beds with comparable performances to regular lattices. Optimization modes controlling the use of unionized energy grids, cross-sections pre-calculation and flux calculation through spectrum collapse or direct tally lead to high flexibility and optimal memory usage while limiting calculation time. Automated burnable materials division is a useful tool to lower the memory requirements while quickly generating the geometry and materials. Finally, parallelization and domain decomposition allow for decreasing unreasonable memory constraints for large cores.
This work thus explores the possibilities of Serpent 2 when applying depletion in pebble beds, compares the optimization modes and quantifies the simulation time and memory usage depending on the conditions of the calculation. Overall, the results show that Serpent 2 is well adapted to the use of small to large cores calculations with commonly available resources.