This paper explains the strategy of our company (Tokyo Electric Power, TEPCO) regarding means of long-term heat removal from the primary containment vessel (PCV) of Units 6 and 7 (ABWR) of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in a severe accident.
If the PCV continues in a high-temperature state for a long time, the strength of the PCV concrete will decline, and the risk of being affected by an earthquake will increase. Therefore, it is crucial for safety to cool the PCV and reduce its temperature to the maximum working temperature or lower.
TEPCO provides a means of cooling the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and PCV called the alternative coolant circulation system (ACCS). This system uses the heat exchanger of the residual heat removal (RHR) system, the make up water condensate (MUWC) pump, and alternative heat exchanger vehicles. By using these measures, it is possible reduce temperature in the PCV over the long term to the maximum working temperature (design value) or less, even in severe accident scenarios such as a large LOCA + ECCS function failures + SBO (station blackout).
This function has quite high reliability, but in a scenario where these measures cannot be used, expectations are placed on the filtered vent (FV). However, due to FV characteristics, it is impossible to reduce to below the saturation temperature of 100°C at atmospheric pressure using FV alone, and it will be necessary in the medium/long-term to cool the PCV while also restoring the cooling equipment.
Therefore, the following restoration operation of PCV cooling and its dose evaluation were studied.
(1) RPV heat removal by restoring the RHR system
(2) RPV and PCV heat removal using a portable pump employing a portable heat exchanger
(3) RPV and PCV heat removal using the suppression pool water clean up system (SPCU) employing portable heat exchangers
(4) RPV heat removal using the clean up water system (CUW)
By clarifying beforehand issues such as feasibility of these systems, the on-site environment for restoration measures, and the necessary gear/systems, the authors were able to secure means of long-term cooling of the PCV, and further enhance PCV reliability.