The motivation for exploring the potential development of accident tolerant fuels in PWR to replace existing Zr alloy clad monolithic oxide fuel is outlined. The assessment includes a brief review of core degradation processes under transient conditions and introduces the enhancement of the accident tolerance of PWR by the development of fuels/cladding that can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core and loss of coolant water for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during accident conditions. probabilistic risk assessment are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the reduction of core damage frequence.

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