Steam condensation is characterized by a relatively large interfacial region between gas and liquid which, in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses, allows the creation of a discretized domain whose average cell size is larger than the interface itself. For this reason generally one fluid model with interface tracking (e.g. volume of fluid method, VOF) is employed for its solution in CFD, since the solution of the interface requires a reasonable amount of cells, reducing the modeling efforts. However, for some particular condensation applications, requiring the computation of long transients or the steam ejected through a large number of holes, one-fluid model becomes computationally too expensive for providing engineering information, and a two-fluid model (i.e. Eulerian two-phase flow) is preferable. Eulerian two-phase flow requires the introduction of closure terms representing the interactions between the two fluids in particular, in the condensation case, drag and heat transfer. Both terms involve the description of the interaction area whose definition is different from the typical one adopted in the boiling analyses. In the present work a simple but effective formulation for the interaction area is given based on the volume fraction gradient and then applied to a validation test case of steam bubbling in various subcooling conditions. It has been shown that this method gives realistic values of bubble detachment time, bubble penetration for the cases of interest in the nuclear application and in the particular application to the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

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