In atmospheric dispersion models of nuclear accident, the empirical dispersion coefficients were obtained under certain experiment conditions, which is different from actual conditions. This deviation brought in the great model errors. A better estimation of the radioactive nuclide’s distribution could be done by correcting coefficients with real-time observed value. This reverse problem is nonlinear and sensitive to initial value. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an appropriate method for this correction procedure. Fitness function is a particular type of objective function to achieving the set goals.
To analysis the fitness functions’ influence on the correction procedure and the dispersion model’s forecast ability, four fitness functions were designed and tested by a numerical simulation. In the numerical simulation, GA, coupled with Lagrange dispersion model, try to estimate the coefficients with model errors taken into consideration.
Result shows that the fitness functions, in which station is weighted by observed value and by distance far from release point, perform better when it exists significant model error. After performing the correcting procedure on the Kincaid experiment data, a significant boost was seen in the dispersion model’s forecast ability.