The AP1000® plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. One of the key design approaches in the AP1000 plant is to use passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. Active defense-in-depth (DiD) features provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the PRA. The passive features are classified as safety-related in the US. The active defense-in-depth features are classified as non-safety (with supplemental requirements) in the US. The AP1000 design has incorporated a standardization approach, which together with the level of safety achieved by the passive safety features, results in a plant design that can be applied to different geographical regions with varying regulatory standards and utility expectations without major changes.
While the first deployments of the AP1000 plant are ongoing in China and the United States, Westinghouse has remained active in also pursuing European opportunities for the AP1000 plant. In particular, Westinghouse has cooperated for almost two decades with European utilities to ensure adaptation of the AP1000 plant to the European market. This cooperation has resulted in progress towards AP1000 plant deployment in European countries.
The AP1000 plant is recognized worldwide and has been reviewed by regulators around the world, including China, the United Kingdom (UK), Canada as well as the US. The AP1000 PWR is the only Generation III+ reactor design to obtain final design approval from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and interim approval from UK regulatory authorities as part of the Generic Design Assessment (GDA) process. It is the only technology to be licensed for construction in the United States in more than 30 years, and the only Generation III+ technology worldwide to receive an operating license, as well as construction approval in China. The AP1000 plant has been independently assessed and confirmed to meet the requirements of the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) document and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document (URD). The AP1000 plant has also been successfully assessed against multiple European industry guidelines such as the WENRA safety objectives, the IAEA safety standards, the ENSREG stress tests and the UK Weightman Report. In support of multiple ongoing request for proposal (RFP) and pre-RFP activities in European countries, Westinghouse has focused design effort and customer interactions in several European countries to adapt the AP1000 plant to European requirements. Review of the AP1000 plant design with regulators around the world, European Standards compliance activities, and continued cooperation and interaction with European Utilities provide confidence that the AP1000 plant can be successfully licensed and deployed in Europe.
The AP1000 50Hz standard plant design (also referred to as European Passive Standard or EPS) is the resulting adaptation of the AP1000 60 Hz US standard plant design to European market needs and requirements, addressing both customer input from such programs as the European Passive Plant (EPP) program in addition to regulatory and Utility needs identified though RFP and pre-RFP activities. The AP1000 50Hz standard plant design retains the overall AP1000 plant design (safe, simple, standard), the use of proven components and its cost, safety and operability advantages, while incorporating some changes to adapt to the European environment.
This paper will discuss some of the key changes that have been incorporated into the AP1000 50Hz plant design as necessary to adapt to the European market and demonstrate that the vast majority of the standard AP1000 plant design being built in China and the US is not impacted.