Radioactive wastes are produced within the nuclear fuel cycle operations (uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing). Evaporation is a proven method for the treatment of liquid radioactive waste providing both good decontamination and high concentration. Two technical designs of nuclear facilities for low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment are presented in the paper and the evaluation of both methods, as well. One method is two-stage evaporation, widely used in the People’s Republic of China’s nuclear facilities; another is two evaporator units and subsequently ion exchange, which is based on the experience gained from TIANWAN nuclear power plant. Primary evaporation and ion exchange ensure the treated waste water discharged to environment by controlling the condensate radioactivity, and secondary evaporation is to control concentrates in a limited salt concentration.

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