The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive heat removal system proposed for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. A fluidic diode has been proposed in the DRACS primary loop to maintain the passive feature. Fluidic diodes are passive flow control devices with low flow resistance in one direction and high flow resistance in the opposite direction. The fluidic diode is orientated such that during reactor normal operation the primary salt flow in the DRACS is restricted, thus preventing excessive heat loss from the reactor to the DRACS. However, when the DRACS is functioning during reactor accidents, the primary salt flow is in the forward flow direction of the diode that features low flow resistance.
To investigate the reliability and thermal performance of the DRACS, a high-temperature DRACS test facility (HTDF) is being designed and constructed at The Ohio State University (OSU). In this HTDF, a conventional vortex diode has been proposed. In this paper, a detailed design process of the vortex diode for the HTDF is presented. Design parameters, such as the desired flow rates in and pressure drops across the fluidic diode, were first determined for both the forward and reverse flow directions, following which was the parametric CFD study of multiple vortex diodes with variant nozzle size, chamber size, and inlet flow rates. Flow structures inside the diode, and the effects of the nozzle size, chamber size, and Reynolds number on the Euler number were examined for both flow directions. Correlations of the forward and reverse Euler numbers and the diodicity were developed and used to develop a vortex diode design that would be applicable to the HTDF.