It is difficult to perform multiple recycle of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in PWRs as the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) tends to become positive after a few recycles and the core may have positive reactivity when fully voided. Due to the favorable impact on the MTC and void coefficient fostered by use of thorium (Th), the possibility of performing Th-TRU multiple-recycle in reduced-moderation PWRs (RMPWRs) is under consideration. The simplest way to reduce the moderation in a PWR is to increase the fuel pin diameter. This configuration improves the trade-off between achievable burn-up and MTC, but is ultimately limited by thermal-hydraulic constraints. Heterogeneous recycle with the bred uranium (U3) and the TRU are arranged in separate pins was found to be neutronically preferable to a homogeneous configuration. Spatial separation also enables the U3 and TRU to be refueled on different batch schemes. These techniques allow satisfactory discharge burn-up while ensuring negative MTC and fully voided reactivity, with the pin diameter of a standard PWR increased from 9.5 mm to 11 mm. Reactivity control is a key challenge due to the reduced worth of neutron absorbers and their detrimental effect on the void coefficients, especially when diluted, as is the case for soluble boron. It seems necessary to control the core using control rods to keep the fully voided reactivity negative. A preliminary analysis indicates that this is feasible.

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