The field of protection against external natural hazards (eg.: rare and severe hazards) has regularly evolved since the design of the first NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) to take into account the experience feedback. Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011, consideration of rare and severe natural hazards has considerably increased in the international context. Taking rare and severe natural hazards into account is a challenge for operating nuclear reactors and a major issue for the design of new nuclear reactors.
In Europe, considering lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, European safety authorities released new reference levels in the framework of WENRA 2013 (Western European Nuclear Regulators Association) standards for new reactors  to address external hazards more severe than the design basis hazards. Considering this input, the French and UK nuclear regulators have released specific guidelines (Guide No. 22 related to design of new pressurized water reactors  for France and ONR Safety Assessment Principles SAPs  for the UK) to describe how to apply those principles in their national context.
To comply with those different guidelines, EDF has developed different approaches, called Beyond Design Basis (BDB) approaches, related to rare and severe natural hazards issue in the French and UK context for nuclear new build projects.
Those two approaches are presented in the present technical paper with the following structure:
- safety objectives;
- hazards to consider;
- SSCs (Structures, Systems, and Components) required to meet safety objectives;
- study rules and assumptions;
- analysis of deterministic or probabilistic nature, thereby including the following:
○ analysis of available margins (margin between 10−4 per annum exceedance frequency of hazard site level or equivalent level of safety and the chosen Design Basis Hazard level also called ‘inherent margin’);
○ Fukushima Daiichi accident Operating Experience feedback;
○ probabilistic safety analyses.
This technical paper highlights common characteristics and differences between the two approaches considering the French and UK regulatory contexts.