The availability of fresh water for power plant makeup and cooling continues to decline. In addition, environmental regulators are placing tighter limitations on the methods by which water is obtained and discharged for and from industrial processes. One example is the emerging restrictions on once-through cooling in the U.S. This paper examines state-of-the art technology for producing plant makeup water, and it also looks at techniques for recovering significant portions of wastewater streams such as cooling tower blowdown. Technologies that will be reviewed include makeup water pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodeionization, and high-pH reverse osmosis for wastewater recovery.

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