With the nuclear renaissance, many new countries start to consider nuclear energy as a reliable, sustainable energy source and initiated their own programs for a peaceful application.

One of the major issues during the site selection and design of a NPP is the heat sink issue, i.e. availability of reliable and efficient recipient of heat (air or water) in relation with:

• The waste heat removal from the condenser of turbine generator during normal operation of the NPP.

• The assurance of the nuclear fuel residual heat removal and safety important equipment cooling in abnormal and accidental situations.

There are several newcomer countries that have extreme climatic conditions in combination with a shallow sea and absence of an important reliable cold water source inside the country (groundwater, rivers, lakes, etc.). This requires particular consideration of the heat sink issue for the siting survey and design requirements.

The article discusses advantages and disadvantages of possible heat sink solutions, proposes site survey criteria and provides a list of safety and performance issues to be addressed throughout siting and design stages.

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