Current HTGRs such as the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) use Tri-Isotropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles with diameter of around 1 mm. TRISO fuel consists of a micro spherical kernel of oxide or oxycarbide fuel and coating layers of porous pyrolytic carbon (buffer), inner dense pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC) and outer dense pyrolytic carbon (OPyC). The principal function of these coating layers is to retain fission products within the particle. Particularly, the SiC coating layer acts as a barrier against the diffusive release of metallic fission products and provides mechanical strength for the particle [1].

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