The mechanisms of charge coupled devices (CCD) irradiated by protons are analyzed. The simulation models of ionization damage and displacement damage are developed. The charge transfer efficiency (CTE) decreased by proton irradiation is numerically simulated. The CTE degradation caused by different traps and by protons with different energies has been studied respectively. Both surface dark signals induced by proton ionization damage and bulk dark signals induced by proton displacement damage are numerically simulated. The variability of surface dark signals, bulk dark signals, and total dark signals with proton fluence is compared. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results of the relevant literatures.

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