Steam flowing over horizontally-stratified subcooled water in a circular-cross-section pipe may result in condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH). This subject has been studied by a number of researchers and representative data are given by Bjorge and Griffith 1986 who studied the conditions that lead to CIWH. Bjorge & Griffith give a good description of the phenomena including its precursors and characteristics.

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