RPVs of WWER type reactors are manufactured from other type of steels (15Kh2MFA of Cr-Mo-V type for WWER-440 and 15Kh2NMFA of Ni-Cr-Mo-V type for WWER-1000) and according to other Codes and standards than PWR ones, thus some specific problems are currently more important for WWER. The principal problem lies in relatively small number of manufactured and operated WWER type NPPs. Even though a high level of unification in RPVs exists — practically only two designs of RPVs exists (WWER-440 and WWER-1000) — total number is still small. All WWER-440 RPV are practically identical, either they were manufactured for V-230 or V-213 model: the only difference is in the purity of used materials and existence/non-existence of the surveillance programmes. (Fact that some V-230 type vessels were not covered by austenitic cladding is not important from irradiation effects point of view.) Regarding WWER-440/V-230 types, it is necessary to take into account, that even though most of them were successfully annealed, only some of them are still in operation but most of them will be closed in near future. Similar situation is with WWER-1000 RPVs, either they were manufactured for V-320 (most frequent), or V-338 or the newest V-428 — differences are practically only in the content of nickel in critical weldments and/or in design of surveillance specimens capsules. But, Large advantage of all WWER surveillance programmes is in loading static fracture toughness specimens in all programmes. The papers tries to summarize and analyze all current issues connected with radiation embrittlement of operated reactor pressure vessels of WWER type.
- Nuclear Engineering Division
Current Issues in Operated WWER Type RPVs
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Brumovsky´, M, & Kytka, M. "Current Issues in Operated WWER Type RPVs." Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Volume 1: Plant Operations, Maintenance, Installations and Life Cycle; Component Reliability and Materials Issues; Advanced Applications of Nuclear Technology; Codes, Standards, Licensing and Regulatory Issues. Orlando, Florida, USA. May 11–15, 2008. pp. 679-683. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICONE16-48713
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