In the paper a possibility of using a lead isotope, pure Pb-208, as a coolant for a subcritical core of 80 MW thermal capacity of the PDS-XADS type facility is considered. Calculations of neutronic characteristics were performed using Monte Carlo technique. The following initial data were chosen: an annular core with a target, as a neutron source, at its centre; the core coolant — Pb-208 (100%); a fuel — a mix of mono nitrides of depleted uranium and power plutonium with a small share of neptunium and americium; the target coolant — a modified lead and bismuth eutectic, Pb-208(80%)-Bi(20%); proton beam energy — 600 MeV; effective multiplication factor of the core under operation — Keff = 0.97; thermal capacity of the core — N = 80 MW. From calculations performed it follows that in using Pb-208 as the core coolant the necessary intensity of the external source of neutrons to deliver 80 MW thermal capacity is equal to S = 2.29−1017 n/s that corresponds to proton beam current Ip = 2.8 mA and beam capacity Pp = 1.68 MW. In using natural lead instead of Pb-208 as the core coolant, effective multiplication factor of the core in normal operating regime falls down to the value equal to Keff = 0.95. In these conditions multiplication of external neutrons in the core and thermal capacity of the subcritical core are below nominal by 1.55 times. For achievement the rated core power N = 80 MW it is required on ∼20–30% to increase the fuel loading and volume of the core, or by 1.55 times to increase intensity of the external source of neutrons. In the last case, the required parameters of the neutron source and of the corresponding proton beam are following: intensity of the neutron source S = 3.55·1017 n/s., beam current Ip = 4.32 mA, beam capacity Pp = 2.59 MW. To exploit the accelerator with the reduced proton beam current it will be required about 56 tons of Pb-208, as a minimum, for the core coolant. Charges for its obtaining can be recovered at the expense of the economy of the proton accelerator construction cost. In this case, the acceptable price of the lead isotope Pb-208 must be less than $2,860/kg.
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Neutronic and Physical Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven System with a Lead-208 Coolant
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Khorasanov, GL, Ivonov, AP, & Blokhin, AI. "Neutronic and Physical Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven System with a Lead-208 Coolant." Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Volume 3: Structural Integrity; Nuclear Engineering Advances; Next Generation Systems; Near Term Deployment and Promotion of Nuclear Energy. Miami, Florida, USA. July 17–20, 2006. pp. 373-382. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICONE14-89153
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