Many studies have been undertaken to understand crud formation on the upper spans of fuel pin clad surfaces, which is called axial offset anomaly (AOA), is observed in pressurized water reactors (PWR) as a result of sub-cooled nucleate boiling. Separately, researchers have considered the effect of water radiolysis in the primary coolant of PWR. This study examines the effects of radiolysis of liquid water, which aggressively participate in general cladding corrosion and solutes within the primary coolant system, in the terms of pH, temperature, and Linear Energy Transfer (LET). It also discusses the effect of mass transfer, especially diffusion, on the concentration distribution of the radiolytic products, H2 and O2, in the porous crud layer. Finally it covers the effects of chemical reactions of boric acid (H3BO3), which has a negative impact on the mechanisms of water recombination with hydrogen, lithium hydroxide (LiOH), which has a negative effect on water decomposition, dissolved hydrogen (DH), and some trace impurities.

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