Uranium prospecting in Romania has started some 50 years ago, when a bilateral agreement between Romania and the former Soviet Union had been concluded and a joint Romanian-Soviet enterprise was created. The production started in 1952 by the opening of some deposits from western Transylvania (Bihor and Ciudanovita). From 1962 the production has continued only with Romanian participation on the ore deposit Avram Iancu and from 1985 on the deposits from Eastern Carpathians (Crucea and Botusana). Starting with 1978 the extracted ores have been completely processed in the Uranium Ore Processing Plant from Feldioara, Brasov. Complying with the initial stipulations of the Nuclear National Program launched at the beginning of the 1980s, the construction of a nuclear power station in Cernavoda has started in Romania, using natural uranium and heavy water (CANDU type), having five units of 650 MW installed capacity. After 1989 this initial Nuclear National Program was revised and the construction of the first unit (number 1) was finalized and put in operation in 1996. In 2001 the works at the unit number 2 were resumed, having the year 2005 as the scheduled activating date. The future of the other 3 units, being in different construction phases, hasn’t been clearly decided. Taking into consideration the exhaustion degree of some ore deposits and from the prospect of exploiting other ore deposits, the uranium industry will be subject of an ample restructuring process. This process includes workings of modernization of the mines in operation and of the processing plant, increasing the profitableness, lowering of the production costs by closing out and ecological rehabilitation of some areas affected by mining works and even new openings of some uraniferous exploitations. This paper presents the actual situation and the prospects of uranium mining industry on the base of some new technical and economical strategic concepts in accordance with the actual Romanian Program for Nuclear Energetics.

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