One-dimensional linear stability analysis was performed for single-phase lead-bismuth eutectic natural circulation. The Nyquist criterion and a root search method were employed to find the linear stability boundary of both forward and backward circulations. It was found that the natural circulations could be linearly unstable in a high Reynolds number region. Increasing loop friction makes a forward circulation more stable, but destabilizes the corresponding backward circulation under the same heating/cooling conditions. The characteristic wavelength of an unstable disturbance is roughly equal to the entire loop length.

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