The purpose of this investigation is to conduct a comparative study on the formation of bubble on top of a stainless steel needle nozzle and two substrate plate nozzles. The experimental study is conducted on a submerged needle nozzle with internal diameter of 0.51 mm and 0.155 mm thickness, and two stainless steel substrate plates with nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm and 0.51mm respectively. The experiment is carried out under low gas flow rates (0.015 ∼ 0.85 ml/min). The bubble formation is recorded by a high speed video camera and detailed characteristics of bubble formation such as the variations of instantaneous contact angles, bubble heights and the radii of contact lines are obtained, which show a weak dependence on the flow rate under the conditions of current work. Using experimentally captured values of the height of bubble and the radius of contact line, the Young-Laplace equation is solved, which is found to be able to predict bubble evolution quite well until the last milliseconds before the detachment. Interestingly, it is found that the trends of the variation of bubble volume expansion rate from the stainless steel needle and the substrate plate are different, however, the rest of bubble characteristics such as radius of contact line, bubble height, contact angle, and radius of curvature of bubble apex follow same trends as the time and bubble volume change for formation of bubble on top of needle and substrate nozzles. A force analysis of bubble formation reveals that the observed variations of contact angles and other characteristics during the bubble growth period are associated with the relative contribution of surface tension, buoyancy and gravitational forces.

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