New discoveries presented in the last decade for enhancing boiling performance utilizing nanoscale structures on surfaces are critically examined in this paper. Since the mechanism for such a phenomenon is not fully understood, this review mainly focuses on the implementation of nanostructures on these surfaces as well as on the interpretation of underlying phenomena for changing the boiling performance. Design consideration and theoretical developments are also discussed followed by practical aspects of nanostructure manufacturing. The issues related to performance, ease of fabrication and durability (whenever available) are reviewed and recommendations are made for future research in this emerging area.

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