Swirling jets with co-axial gas filament flow have been used for production of small bubbles in environmental and chemical processing industries for some time. The modeling of the physics for the gas filament break-up is not well established, and this impedes scaling of the device to use with fluids other than water and organics where data is available. High speed photographic studies of the gas filament break-up are used to examine the physical phenomena, and support model development for the bubble production that may be used to scale the device to alternate applications, such as bubble production in liquid metals. Bubble break-up models based on energy dissipation generate a power-law, with exponent of α = 8/5, relating Weber number to Reynolds number at the nozzle exit. Those models are compared to empirical models found in the literature providing a link between mechanistic models, scaling arguments, and legacy empirical models.

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