Protein microarrays have been employed to screen tens to thousands of proteins simultaneously for the observation of the biochemical activities in the protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid and small molecule interactions. This technology allows high throughput analysis and holds great potential for basic molecular biology research, disease marker identification, toxicological response profiling and pharmaceutical target screening. However, proteins easily malfunction in harsh environments so that they are hardly preserved before the application because of their complex and fragile structures. On the other hand, identify scarce amount of proteins less than fM range is very important and challenge for disease diagnosis at very early stage. As a result, the procedures for protein micro array formation are very important for preserving protein functionality to ensure useful protein assays, as well as the improvement of the detection sensitivity up to single molecule event but with high dynamic range for disease early detection. Therefore, this paper provides a novel view from the preparation of high efficient protein micro chip toward ultra high sensitive single protein nano array through the technology integration of BioMEMS and Bio-Nanotechnology.

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