The combustion synthesis of carbon nanotubes is reviewed, examining their formation and control in diffusion flames. The production of CNTs in the absence of a catalyst, the range of morphology of nanostructures when a catalyst is employed, control of the growth and orientation of CNTs and their arrays through the use of electric fields and the functional coating of CNTs with polymers using supercritical CO2 are discussed. Application of these techniques to other materials is discussed.

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