The present review article focuses on the research field of heat transfer of single-phase laminar-flow and two-phase self-exciting oscillating-flow in microchannels. First, to make prominent the special features of Micro Thermal Systems (MTSs), the definition of the term “Nano Thermal Systems” (NTSs) is discussed from the viewpoint of local equilibrium. Next, to show the special features of flow and heat transfer in microchannels, some thermal functions appearing in microchannels are introduced. Further, focusing on flow and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase laminar liquid-flow in microchannels, researches in the literature and recent results at IIS (Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo) are introduced, and it is shown that the results obtained for tubes larger than 0.1mm in inner diameter are in good agreement with the conventional analyses. Finally, Japanese researches and recent results at IIS on micro SEMOS heat pipes (mSEMOSs) are introduced and it is shown that a mSEMOS of 0.5mm in inner diameter can transport a significant amount of heat.

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