Transient operation of engines leads to air fuel (A/F) ratio excursions, which can increase engine emissions. These excursions have been attributed to the formation of fuel films in the intake port, which are caused by a portion of the intake fuel impinging and adhering on the relatively cool port surface. These films act as a source or sink which cause the AF variations depending upon the transient condition. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the nature and quantity of such films may assist in future fuel mixture preparation designs that could aid in emission reductions, yet would not require overly expensive nor complicated systems.
The control of air to fuel ratio is a critical issue for high performance engines: due to the low stroke-to-bore ratio the maximum power is reached at very high regimes, letting little time to the fuel to evaporate and mix with air. The injector located upstream the throttle causes a lot of fuel to impinge the throttle and intake duct walls, slowing the dynamics of mixture formation in part load conditions.
The aim of this work is to present a CFD methodology for the evaluation of mixture formation dynamics applied to a Ducati high performance engine under part load conditions.
The phenomena involved in the process are highly heterogeneous, and particular care must be taken to the choice of CFD models and their validation. In the present work all the main models involved in the simulations are validated against experimental tests available in the literature, selected based on the similarity of physical conditions of those of the engine configuration under analysis.
The multi-cycle simulation methodology here presented reveals to be a useful tool for the evaluation of the mixture dynamics and for the evaluation of injection wall film compensator models.